Abstract A combined in vivo and in vitro testing method for surgical masks is presented. The mask to be tested was placed over the nose and mouth of a manikin which was accurately constructed according to human measurements. The manikin was placed in a special counting chamber and a known number of bacteria were blown through...

My practice can no longer obtain surgical masks.  Are they necessary in the operating room (OR)? It is recommended that all personnel wear a surgical mask in the OR to prevent contamination of the surgical site and surgical instruments with droplets from the nose and mouth. It is important that the masks be used properly (i.e., tied appropriate...